West Nile Virus Links for Texas

Human WNv Data by County and by Week for Texas

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Mosquito Control Gimmicks - TAMU

When it comes to mosquito control devices, about the only thing that works is common sense, says an entomologist with Texas A&M University.

Meanwhile, many Texas citizens are using devices or controls costing hundreds or even thousands of dollars that may offer only marginal control or may actually draw more mosquitoes onto their property, said Dr. Jim Olson, professor of entomology with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in CollegeStation. [...]

What's particularly disturbing to Olson are the pesticide misting devices now on the market. There are several models, but they generally work by emitting small puffs of the insecticides at timed intervals around a house's perimeter. The devices are expensive, costing as much as $5,000, and their effectiveness is suspect. Worse is the amount of pesticide they release into the environment over time and the possibility of inhalation by residents and the drift of the pesticide to other properties.

"It's about the most indiscriminate, irresponsible use of a chemical control that I've ever seen," Olson said.

What You Can Do
Mosquito Management and Control
Texas A&M, Department of Entomology

The reduction, elimination or treatment of these various [breeding] sites are the best and most cost-effective means of abatement. While most of the species are just a nuisance, stagnant water breeders pose the leading health risk. Nutrient rich, stagnant pools of water are the preferred breeding site for the Culex species. Culex mosquitoes are a major transmitter of encephalitis viruses.

Texas Department of State Health Services

July, August and September are the prime months for human cases of WNv in Texas

West Nile Virus In Texas

Information for West Nile Virus in Texas

Maps of West Nile Virus Surveillance Data

Statistics for West Nile Virus in Texas

West Nile Virus Information Line: 1-888-883-9997 or click here to find a contact in your area.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC's West Nile Virus - Home Page

Human WNv Data by County and by Week for Texas - CDC

Mosquito WNv Data by County and by Week for Texas - CDC

Human West Nile Virus Data by State for the US - CDC

Human WNv Data by County and by Week for Texas per CDC - 2009

Detailed Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Arboviral Encephalitis (PDF)

Illness onset for 66 persons with WNv disease cases, 2001


Environmental Protection Agency

How to Use Insect Repellents Safely



Joint EPA-CDC Statement on Mosquito Control

EPA and Mosquito Control

Malathion For Mosquito Control

Synthetic Pyrethroids (Permethrin, Resmethrin, and Sumithrin)

What is a Pyrethroid insecticide? - Texas AgriLife Extension

Larvicides For Mosquito Control

Biological Control - Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis or Bti - Cornell

Mosquito Dunks (Bti) can be purchased for as little as $9.97 per six pack atyour local big box store

DEET-related Information

Information about the insect repellents containing "DEET" - EPA


"A higher percentage of DEET in a repellent does not mean that your protection is better—just that it will last longer. DEET concentrations higher than 50% do not increase the length of protection." - CDC


Insect Repellent Use and Safety - CDC


Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites - New England Journal of Medicine 


DEET - General Fact Sheet - Oregon State University



Permethrin Fast Facts - South Dakota Department of Health 


Wildlife Information

West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis

Bird & Birder-related Information

West Nile Virus in Birds - MicrobeWiki

Q. Should people stop feeding birds? (CDC)
A. There is no reason for people to stop feeding birds. Feeding birds does not increase a person's risk for contracting WNV infection.

"Although birds, particularly crows and jays, infected with WN virus can die or become ill, most infected birds do survive." - CDC

Florida Avian Mortality Surveillance 2001

Range of Blue Jay - Texas Breeding Bird Atlas

Range of American Crow - Texas Breeding Bird Atlas

How Do I Report a Dead Bird? - TDSHS

Photo of three mosquitoes feeding on a bird, two at the edge of the bird's eye

326 Bird Species Reported to CDC's WNv Avian Mortality Database - as of Apr 2009

Wildlife Species Affected by WNv as Reported to USGS - as of 2003

Christmas bird count data suggest West Nile virus may not be a conservation issue in northeastern United States.
Caffrey, C. and C.C. Peterson. 2003. American Birds 14-21.

Horse-related Information

"Approximately 40% of equine WN virus cases results in the death of the horse." - CDC

"Horses were the only WNV-infected nonhuman mammals reported in 2001." - CDC

Horse data by county (cumulative) and by week per CDC

Map of Texas Counties with WNv in Horses - TDSHS - 2012

Equine Cases or Suspects - Texas Animal Health Commission

Pet-related Information

Q. Can I put DEET on my pets to protect them from mosquito bites? (CDC)
A. It is recommended that you do not apply repellents with DEET to animals, because they may lick themselves and therefore "eat" the product. You may want to check with your veterinarian for suggestions if a pet is being bothered by mosquitoes.

Fish-related Information

Gambusia holbrooki - Eastern Mosquitofishes - USGS

Gambusia affinis - Western Mosquitofishes - USGS

"Although widely introduced as mosquito control agents, recent critical reviews of the world literature on mosquito control have not supported the view that Gambusia are particularly effective in reducing mosquito populations or in reducing the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases" - USGS

Some Mosquitoes of Medical Importance

There are over 3,000 mosquito species worldwide, over 200 species in the United States and approximately 85 species in Texas.

Over 15 species are thought to be involved in the cycling of West Nile virus.

Mosquito WNv Data by County and by Week for Texas - CDC

Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex Photos - OK State Department of Entomology

Mosquito Species Positive for WN virus, June – October, 2000 - CDC



Host-Use Patterns of WNv-positive Mosquito Species as of June 2001 - CDC


Culex pipiens: Fact Sheet - Rutgers

Culex pipiens Complex (includes: Cx. quinquefasciatus: Southern House Mosquito - Rutgers
Thought to be one of the primary WN vectors throughout Texas
Ornithophilic - Stabilizing Vector- Breeds in standing, very septic water
One of our most common warm weather backyard mosquitoes

Aedes albopictus: Asian Tiger Mosquito - Rutgers
- CDC Map 2000
Opportunistic feeder - Amplifying Vector - Introduced in 1985 - Day Biter
Breeds very well in irrigated lawns, most common in eastern half of Texas

Culex tarsalis: Western Encephalitis Mosquito - Rutgers
Mammalophilic - Prime suspect of West Nile virus activity in West Texas
May explain high number of horse cases in west Texas

Culex salinarius - Grass Pool Breeding Culex - Rutgers
Opportunistic - A primary vector for West Nile virus, rural active
Peak population throughout the winter particularly along the coast

Aedes vexans - Upland Flood Water Mosquito - Rutgers
Mammalophilic - Active in the West Nile virus cycle
Winter active in southeastern third of Texas, rural active
Warm weather active in northwest and far west Texas

Mosquitoes of Texas - Fournier et al. (1989)
Fournier et al. 1989. Medical Entomology Section Training Manual:
Mosquito-Borne Encephalitis Surveillance and Distribution Records of Texas Mosquitoes.
Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Laboratories, 115 pp.

Vector Competence of Selected North American Mosquitoes for WNv - CDC

Shortest Insect Life Cycle - University of Florida Book of Insect Records

The mosquito Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae), probably has the shortest sexual life cycle. Temperature and geographical origin are the most important factors affecting how quickly the cycle is completed. In California’s Coachella Valley, under optimum environmental conditions, Psorophora confinnis can complete an entire life cycle within a week.

Photo of three mosquitoes feeding on a bird, two at the edge of the bird's eye

Other North American Mosquitoes of Medical Importance

Essays, Editorials, Interviews, Histories

History of Mosquito Control in NJ

Mosquito Bytes - The Why Files

Mosquito: A Natural History of Our Most Persistent and Deadly Foe 

NPR interview with Andrew Spielman, author of Mosquito - 46 Minutes

Public Panic over West Nile Virus - 2000 - NABA

News and Research

The Buzz About West Nile Virus PSA - New PSA from the CDC

MEDLINEplus - A service of the National Library of Medicine

Other Related Sites - CDC

04 Feb 2014 © Mike Quinn / entomike@gmail.comTexas Entomology