Texas Beetle Resources

Return to Texas Entomology - Compiled by Mike Quinn


Pollinating Beetles of Texas

The following species are representative of flower-frequenting beetles in Texas


Carabidae - Scarabaeidae - Buprestidae - Lycidae - Cantharidae - Dermestidae - Cleridae - Melyridae - Nitidulidae - Phalacridae - Erotylidae - Coccinellidae
Mordellidae - Ripiphoridae - Oedemeridae - Meloidae - Anthicidae - Scraptiidae - Cerambycidae - Chrysomelidae - Attelabidae - Curculionidae - References

Carabidae - Ground Beetles

Lebia viridis Say - Lebia viridis Lebia pulchella Dejean - Lebia pulchella Lebia bitaeniata Chevrolat - Lebia bitaeniata Lebia analis Dejean - Lebia analis Carabid - Lebia fuscata Lebia lobulata LeConte - Lebia lobulata Lebia viridipennis Dejean - Lebia viridipennis Lebia grandis Hentz - Lebia grandis Lebia vittata (Fabricius) - Lebia vittata

Per Harborne (1993), pollen contains 16-30% or more protein, 1-7% starch, 0-15% free sugar and 3-10% fat by dry weight.


Staphylinidae - Rove Beetles, Eusphalerum spp. visit flowers, but that genus doesn't occur in Texas.


Scarabaeidae - Scarab Beetles

Euphoria sepulcralis (Fabricius) - Euphoria sepulcralis=Euphoria sepulcralis (Fabricius) - Euphoria sepulcralis Euphoria kernii Haldeman - Euphoria kernii=Euphoria kernii Haldeman - Euphoria kernii=Euphoria kernii Haldeman - Euphoria kernii Olive Euphoria - Euphoria herbacea Euphoria pilipennis perhaps - Euphoria pilipennis
Euphoria inda (Linnaeus) - Euphoria inda Euphoria basalis (Gory and Percheron) - Euphoria basalis Euphoria biguttata (Gory and Percheron) - Euphoria biguttata Euphoria devulsa Horn - Euphoria devulsa Euphoria fulgida (Fabricius) - Euphoria fulgida=Blue Emerald Euphoria - Euphoria fulgida
Trigonopeltastes delta Forster - Trigonopeltastes delta Trichiotinus texanus (Horn) - Trichiotinus texanus=Trichiotinus texanus (Horn) - Trichiotinus texanus Trichiotinus piger (Fabricius) - Trichiotinus piger Trichiotinus lunulatus (Fabricius) - Trichiotinus lunulatus=Trichiotinus - Trichiotinus lunulatus Cute Black and Yellow Scarab - Gnorimella maculosa
Valgus seticollis ? - Valgus canaliculatus - male Valgus seticollis=Valgus seticollis (Palisot de Beauvois) - Valgus seticollis - female 

Buprestidae - Metallic Wood-boring Beetles (see also Buprestidae of Texas)

Acmaeodera ornatoides Barr - Acmaeodera ornatoides=Acmaeodera ornatoides Barr - Acmaeodera ornatoides Acmaeodera flavomarginata (Gray) - Acmaeodera flavomarginata=Acmaeodera flavomarginata (Gray) - Acmaeodera flavomarginata Acmaeodera scalaris Mannerheim - Acmaeodera scalaris
Acmaeodera mixta LeConte - Acmaeodera mixta=Acmaeodera mixta LeConte - Acmaeodera mixta=Acmaeodera mixta LeConte - Acmaeodera mixta=Acmaeodera mixta LeConte - Acmaeodera mixta Acmaeodera neoneglecta Fisher - Acmaeodera neoneglecta
Acmaeodera neglecta Fall - Acmaeodera neglecta
=Buprestidae - Acmaeodera? - Acmaeodera neglecta Acmaeodera neoneglecta Fisher - Acmaeodera neoneglecta=Acmaeodera neoneglecta Fisher - Acmaeodera neoneglecta Acmaeodera tubulus (Fabricius) - Acmaeodera tubulus Acmaeodera haemorrhoa LeConte - Acmaeodera haemorrhoa
Anthaxia quercata (Fabricius) - Anthaxia quercata Anthaxia viridifrons Gory - Anthaxia viridifrons - female Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) cyanella Gory - Anthaxia cyanella

Lycidae - Net-winged Beetles

Calopteron terminale (Say) - Calopteron terminale Calopteron reticulatum (Fabricius) - Calopteron reticulatum Lycus sanguineus (Gorham) - Lycus sanguineus Lycus Lycus fernandezi Duges - Lycus fernandezi=Fernandez Net-winged Beetle - Lycus fernandezi

Cantharidae - Soldier Beetles

Chauliognathus scutellaris LeConte - Chauliognathus scutellaris Cantharid 1 - Chauliognathus limbicollis Margined Leatherwing - Chauliognathus marginatus Belotus bicolor Brancucci - Belotus bicolor

Dermestidae - Carpet Beetles

Anthrenus verbasci (Linnaeus) - Anthrenus verbasci Cryptorhopalum ruficorne LeConte - Cryptorhopalum ruficorne Cryptorhopalum reversum Casey - Cryptorhopalum reversum Orphilus ater Erichson - Orphilus ater

Trogoderma prey on wasp and bee larvae, and spider eggs


Cleridae - Checkered Beetles (see also: Cleridae of Texas)

Subfamily Clerinae

Aulicus apachei Barr & Foster - Aulicus apachei Aulicus femoralis Schaeffer - Aulicus femoralis Aulicus Aulicus monticola Enoclerus analis (LeConte) - Enoclerus analis Enoclerus ? - Enoclerus nigripes Enoclerus rosmarus (Say) - Enoclerus rosmarus Cleridae - Enoclerus coccineus Enoclerus vetus Wolcott - Enoclerus vetus BG3040 E8759 - Enoclerus ichneumoneus 
Cleridae - ? - Enoclerus cordifer Enoclerus laetus (Klug) ssp. abruptus (LeConte) - Enoclerus laetus=Enoclerus laetus (Klug) ssp. abruptus (LeConte) - Enoclerus laetus=Enoclerus laetus complex - Enoclerus laetus Enoclerus quadrisignatus (Say) - Enoclerus quadrisignatus
Enoclerus opifex (Gorham) - Enoclerus opifex Enoclerus spinolae (Leconte) - Enoclerus spinolae Enoclerus viduus (Klug) - Enoclerus viduus Enoclerus lecontei Wolcott - Enoclerus lecontei Enoclerus moestus (Klug) - Enoclerus moestus
Trichodes simulator Horn - Trichodes simulator Trichodes bibalteatus LeConte - Trichodes bibalteatus Trichodes bicinctus Green - Trichodes bicinctus Trichodes oresterus Wolcott - Trichodes oresterus Checkered beetle from Banff 10.07.09 - Trichodes ornatus=Checkered beetle from Yellowstone 10.07.07 - Trichodes ornatus=Ornate Checkered Beetle - Trichodes ornatus Beautiful Colors - Trichodes apivorus 

Subfamily Enopliinae

Pelonides granulatipennis (Schaeffer)  - Pelonides granulatipennis=Pelonides granulatipennis (Schaeffer) - Pelonides granulatipennis - male=Pelonides granulatipennis (Schaeffer)  - Pelonides granulatipennis - female BG2604 E4170 - Pelonides quadripunctata=Pelonides quadrinotata (Haldeman) - Pelonides quadrinotata - male=Pelonides quadrinotata (Haldeman) - Pelonides quadrinotata - female=Pelonides quadrinotata (Haldeman) - Pelonides quadrinotata - female Clerid? - Pelonides humeralis=Melyrid - Pelonides humeralis

Melyridae - Soft-winged Flower Beetles 

Hypebaeus Attalusinus mexicanus Marshall, female - Attalusinus mexicanus - female Attalus scincetus (Say) - Attalus scincetus Attalus circumscriptus (Say) - Attalus circumscriptus Attalus rufiventris Horn - Attalus rufiventris Attalus nigripes Horn - Attalus nigripes Attalus serraticornis Fall - Attalus serraticornis Attalus scapularis Marshall - Attalus scapularis Attalus
Collops vittatus (Say) - Collops vittatus - male Collops - female Collops balteatus LeConte - Collops balteatus - male=Collops balteatus LeConte - Collops balteatus - female
  Melyrodes basalis (LeConte) - Melyrodes basalis Melyrodes cribrata (LeConte) - Melyrodes cribrata
Trichochrous Leptovectura adspersa Casey - Leptovectura adspersa Listrus senilis (LeConte) - Listrus senilis

Nitidulidae - Sap Beetles

Carpophilus pallipennis (Say) - Nitops pallipennis Conotelus

Small hive beetle an adventive pest of honey bees


Phalacridae - Shining Flower Beetles

Olibrus

Erotylidae - Pleasing Fungus Beetles

Pleasing Lizard Beetle - Languria laeta Languria mozardi Latreille - Languria mozardi Languria denticulata Schaeffer - Languria denticulata Languria trifasciata Say - Languria trifasciata Dasydactylus cnici Schaeffer - Dasydactylus cnici

Coccinellidae - Lady Beetles (see also: Coccinellidae of Texas)

Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer) - Coleomegilla maculata BG2558 E1670 - Coleomegilla maculata BG2558 E1670 - Coleomegilla maculata Ladybeetle larva - Coleomegilla maculata

Naemia seriata (Melsheimer) - Naemia seriata Ladybeetle - Naemia seriata Lady Beetle - Naemia seriata coccinellid larva - Naemia seriata

Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus - Coccinella septempunctata Seven-spotted Lady Beetle larva - Coccinella septempunctata


Mordellidae - Tumbling Flower Beetles

Mordella insulata LeConte - Mordella insulata Mordella marginata Melsheimer - Mordella marginata Mordellaria serval (Say) - Mordellaria serval Mordella mexicana Champion - Mordella mexicana Paramordellaria carinata (Smith) - Paramordellaria carinata Mordella atrata Melsheimer - Mordella atrata Mordella signata Champion - Mordella signata BG3044 E8771 - Glipa hilaris Hoshihananomia octopunctata (Fabricius) - Hoshihananomia octopunctata Mordellistena cervicalis LeConte - Mordellistena cervicalis - male Mordellina infima (LeConte) - Mordellina infima Mordellistena pustulata (Melsheimer) - Mordellina pustulata Tumbling Flower Beetle - Mordellistena convicta Mordellistena limbalis (Melsheimer) - Mordellistena limbalis Falsomordellistena hebraica (LeConte) - Falsomordellistena hebraica Falsomordellistena pubescens (Fabricius) - Falsomordellistena pubescens Mordellistena trifasciata (Say) - Mordellistena trifasciata

Ripiphoridae - Wedge-shaped Beetles

Wedge-shaped beetle - Macrosiagon limbata - male=Macrosiagon limbata - male=Wedge-shaped Beetle - Macrosiagon limbata - male Ripiphorus rex (Champion) - Ripiphorus rex - female

Ripiphorus spp. parasitize ground nesting bees


Oedemeridae - False Blister Beetles (see also Oedemeridae of Texas)

Heliocis repanda (Horn) - Heliocis repanda Asclera puncticollis (Say) - Asclera puncticollis Polypria cruxrufa Chevrolat - Polypria cruxrufa=Polypria cruxrufa Chevrolat - Polypria cruxrufa

Meloidae - Blister Beetles (see also Meloidae of Texas)

Tarantula Hawk Mimic - Lytta fulvipennis BG2591 E4039 - Lytta aenea=Lytta aenea - female Pyrota deceptiva Selander - Pyrota deceptiva Pyrota tenuicostatis (Dugès) - Pyrota tenuicostatis Pyrota insulata (LeConte) - Pyrota insulata Pleuropasta reticulata (Van Dyke) - Pleuropasta reticulata Eupompha fissiceps LeConte - Eupompha fissiceps=Eupompha fissiceps LeConte - Eupompha fissiceps=Eupompha fissiceps LeConte - Eupompha fissiceps Epicauta fabricii (LeConte) - Epicauta fabricii - male=Epicauta fabricii (LeConte) - Epicauta fabricii - male Black Blister Beetle? - Epicauta pennsylvanica Blister Beetle - Epicauta conferta Epicauta atrata (Fabricius) - Epicauta atrata Epicauta atrivittata (LeConte) - Epicauta atrivittata - male Epicauta segmenta (Say) - Epicauta segmenta
Epicauta nigritarsis (LeConte) - Epicauta nigritarsis Epicauta sericans LeConte - Epicauta sericans South Texas -  Meloidae - Epicauta albida - male Slender black-legged Epi - Epicauta brunnea Epicauta species? - Epicauta immaculata Epicauta maculata (Say) - GROUP - Epicauta maculata Blister Beetle, I think - Epicauta callosa Epicauta polingi Werner - Epicauta polingi Pseudozonitis sp. - Pseudozonitis roseomaculatis Gnathium minimum (Say) - Gnathium minimum Gnathium francilloni Kirby - Gnathium francilloni=Gnathium francilloni Kirby - Gnathium francilloni Zonitis perforata Zonitis (Parazonitis) - Zonitis
Blister Beetle - Nemognatha Nemognatha (Nemognatha) piazata bicolor LeConte  - Nemognatha piazata=Nemognatha (Nemognatha) piazata bicolor LeConte - Nemognatha piazata Nemognatha nigripennis LeConte - Nemognatha nigripennis

Many larvae, other than Epicauta, enter the nests of wild bees, where they consume both immature bees and the provisions of one or more cells.


Anthicidae - Antlike Flower Beetles

Notoxus monodon (Fabricius) - Notoxus monodon Notoxus calcaratus Horn - Notoxus calcaratus Notoxus haustrus Chandler - Notoxus haustrus 

Scraptiidae - False Flower Beetles

Anaspis Diclidia Naucles Pentaria dispar (Liljeblad) - Pentaria dispar Pentaria trifasciata (Melsheimer) - Pentaria trifasciata

Cerambycidae - Long-horned Beetles (see also: Cerambycidae of Texas)

Subfamily Lepturinae - Flower Longhorns

Trigonarthris atrata (LeConte) - Trigonarthris atrata Comacmaeops brunnea  (Knull) - Comacmaeops brunnea=Comacmaeops brunnea (Knull) - Comacmaeops brunnea Bellamira scalaris (Say) - Bellamira scalaris Stenocorus cinnamopterus  (Randall) - Stenocorus cinnamopterus - male Cyphonotida rostrata texana Giesbert & Hovore - Cyphonotida rostrata
Charisalia americana (Haldeman) - Charisalia americana Grammoptera haematites  (Newman) - Grammoptera haematites Megachoriolaus texanus (Knull) - Megachoriolaus texanus=Megachoriolaus texanus (Knull) - Megachoriolaus texanus Pseudostrangali cruentata (Haldeman) - Pseudostrangali cruentata I believe this to be a Florida Longhorn Beetle, captured on the upper Gulf Coast of Texas, High Island, east of Galveston. - Lycochoriolaus lateralis Strangalia sexnotata Haldeman - Strangalia sexnotata=strangaille - Strangalia sexnotata=strangaille - Strangalia sexnotata Typocerus acuticauda standishi Knull - Typocerus acuticauda Strangalia virilis LeConte - Strangalia virilis Typocerus lunulatus texanus Linsley & Chemsak - Typocerus lunulatus BG2126 E0368 - Typocerus zebra Typocerus octonotatus (Haldeman) - Typocerus octonotatus Typocerus velutinus nobilis (Newman) - Typocerus velutinus Typocerus sinuatus (Newman) - Typocerus sinuatus Typocerus balteatus diana Lewis -- PARATYPE - Typocerus balteatus Typocerus acuticauda standishi Knull - Typocerus acuticauda Typocerus lugubris (Say) - Typocerus lugubris

Subfamily Cerambycinae

Plinthocoelium schwarzi (Fisher) - Plinthocoelium schwarzi Plinthocoelium sp. - Plinthocoelium suaveolens
Ochraethes citrinus Chevrolat - Ochraethes citrinus=Ochraethes citrinus Chevrolat - Ochraethes citrinus Placosternus erythropus (Chevrolat) - Placosternus erythropus Tanyochraethes tildeni Chemsak & Linsley - Tanyochraethes tildeni=Tanyochraethes tildeni Chemsak & Linsley - Tanyochraethes tildeni Tylcus hartwegii (White) - Tylcus hartwegii Megacyllene antennata Megacyllene decora (Olivier) - Megacyllene decora Lissonotus flavocinctus Dupont  - Lissonotus flavocinctus
=Rhopalophora cupricollis Guérin-Méneville - Rhopalophora cupricollis Rhopalophora angustata Schaeffer - Rhopalophora angustata Rhopalophora longipes (Say) - Rhopalophora longipes Dihammaphora dispar Chevrolat - Dihammaphora dispar Rhopalophora meeskei Casey - Rhopalophora meeskei
Blood-necked Longhorned Beetle - Callimoxys sanguinicollis - female=Blood-necked Longhorned Beetle - Callimoxys sanguinicollis - female Tetranodus niveicollis (Linell) - Tetranodus niveicollis - female=Tetranodus niveicollis Linell - Tetranodus niveicollis - male Pentanodes dietzii Schaeffer  - Pentanodes dietzii Euderces pini Olivier - Euderces pini Euderces reichei LeConte - Euderces reichei Long-horned Beetle - Euderces picipes=Longhorned Beetle - Euderces picipes
Plionoma suturalis (LeConte) - Plionoma suturalis Plionoma rubens (Casey) - Plionoma rubens - male Schizax senex  LeConte - Schizax senex - male Sphaenothecus bivittata Dupont - Sphaenothecus bivittata Lophalia cyanicollis (Dupont) - Lophalia cyanicollis Mannophorus laetus LeConte - Mannophorus laetus Batyle suturalis cylindrella Casey - Batyle suturalis Batyle ignicollis (Say) - Batyle ignicollis
Aethecerinus latecinctus (Horn) - Aethecerinus latecinctus Aethecerinus wilsonii (Horn) - Aethecerinus wilsonii Pilostenaspis lateralis (LeConte) - Pilostenaspis lateralis Parevander hovorei Giesbert  - Parevander hovorei Callona rimosa - Beautiful Mesquite Borer - Callona rimosa Ancylocera bicolor (Olivier) - Ancylocera bicolor - female=Ancylocera bicolor (Olivier) - Ancylocera bicolor - male Elytroleptus immaculipennis Knull - Elytroleptus immaculipennis Elytroleptus divisus (LeConte) - Elytroleptus divisus Elytroleptus apicalis (LeConte) - Elytroleptus apicalis Elytroleptus limpianus Skiles & Chemsak - Elytroleptus limpianus Elytroleptus floridanus Crossidius suturalis LeConte - Crossidius suturalis Crossidius pulchellus LeConte - Crossidius pulchellus Crossidius humeralis quadrivittatus Penrose - Crossidius humeralis longhorn - Crossidius discoideus Unknown Brown Bug - Crossidius humeralis Crossidius militaris Bates, 1892 - Crossidius militaris - female Tylosis jimenezii Dugès  - Tylosis jimenezii - male=Tylosis jimenezii Dugès  - Tylosis jimenezii Tylosis maculatus LeConte - Tylosis maculatus Tylosis oculatus LeConte - Tylosis oculatus

Chrysomelidae - Leaf Beetles (see also: Chrysomelidae of Texas)

Subfamily Galerucinae - Skeletonizing Leaf Beetles

Paranapiacaba connexa (J. L. LeConte) - Paranapiacaba connexa Parana in Maracaibo or something - Paranapiacaba tricincta Acalymma peregrinum (Jacoby) - Acalymma peregrinum Acalymma vittatum (Fabricius) - Acalymma vittatum Cyclotrypema furcata (Olivier) - Cyclotrypema furcata Triarius vittipennis (Horn) - Triarius vittipennis Leaf Beetle - Acalymma vinctum
Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber - Diabrotica undecimpunctata Diabrotica longicornis (Say) - Diabrotica longicornis=Diabrotica longicornis (Say) - Diabrotica longicornis Diabrotica balteata LeConte - Diabrotica balteata Diabrotica litterata (Sahlberg) - Diabrotica litterata Diabrotica adelpha Harold - Diabrotica adelpha=Diabrotica adelpha Harold - Diabrotica adelpha Diabrotica cristata (Harris) - Diabrotica cristata
Disonycha leptolineata Blatchley - Disonycha leptolineata Disonycha arizonae Casey - Disonycha arizonae Disonycha fumata (LeConte) - Disonycha fumata Disonycha sp. - Disonycha alternata Disonycha admirabila Blatchley - Disonycha admirabila Disonycha glabrata (Fabricius) - Disonycha glabrata Disonycha barberi Blake - Disonycha barberi Disonycha pensylvanica (Illiger) - Disonycha pensylvanica
Disonycha procera Casey - Disonycha procera=Disonycha procera Casey - Disonycha procera Disonycha caroliniana (Fabricius) - Disonycha caroliniana Disonycha stenosticha Schaeffer - Disonycha stenosticha Disonycha triangularis (Say) - Disonycha triangularis Disonycha? sp possible? - Disonycha xanthomelas Disonycha discoidea (Fabricius) - Disonycha discoidea Disonycha tenuicornis Horn - Disonycha tenuicornis

Attelabidae - Leaf Rolling Weevils

Haplorhynchites eximius (LeConte) - Haplorhynchites eximius=Haplorhynchites eximius (LeConte) - Haplorhynchites eximius Haplorhynchites pseudomexicanus Hamilton - Haplorhynchites pseudomexicanus Haplorhynchites quadripennis (Fall) - Haplorhynchites quadripennis=Haplorhynchites quadripennis (Fall) - Haplorhynchites quadripennis

Curculionidae - Weevils

Curculioninae

Notolomus sp. 1 - Notolomus Notolous sp. 2 - Notolomus

Baridinae - Flower Weevils

Odontocorynus salebrosus (Casey) - Odontocorynus salebrosus Nicentrus decipiens (LeConte) - Nicentrus decipiens Linogeraeus neglectus (LeConte) - Linogeraeus neglectus Geraeus modestus (Boheman) - Geraeus modestus Geraeus or Linogeraeus Centrinopus helvinus Casey - Centrinopus helvinus Catapastus seriatus Casey - Catapastus seriatus Madarellus undulatus (Say) - Madarellus undulatus Glyptobaris lecontei Champion - Glyptobaris lecontei 

Also, the following smaller families contain species of flower visitors in Texas: Kateretidae - Cryptophagidae - Byturidae - Mycteridae


Select Beetle Pollination and Related References for Texas and Beyond

Adams, C.L. and R.B. Selander. 1979. The biology of blister beetles of the Vittata Group of the genus Epicauta (Coleoptera, Meloidae). Bulletin of the American Musuem of Natural History 162: 139-266.

Anderson, R.S. and L.D. Gómez-P. 1997. Systenotelus, a remarkable new genus of weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) associated with Carludovica (Cyclanthaceae) in Costa Rica and Panamá. Revista de Biolog a Tropical 45: 887-904.

Armstrong, J.E. 1997. Pollination by deceit in nutmeg (Myristica insipida, Myristicaceae): floral displays and beetle activity at male and female trees. American Journal of Botany 84: 1266–1274.

Armstrong, J.E. and A. Irvine. 1989. Floral biology of Myristica insipida (Myristicaceae), a distinctive beetle pollination syndrome. American Journal of Botany 76: 86-94.

Armstrong, J.E. and A. Irvine. 1990. Functions of staminodia in the beetle-pollinated flowers of Eupomatia laurina. Biotropica 22: 429-431.

Arnett, R.H., Jr. 1951. A revision of the Nearctic Oedemeridae (Coleoptera). American Midland Naturalist 45: 257-391.

Arnett, R.H., Jr. 1965. Species of Oedemeridae of the Big Bend region  of  Texas. Proceedings  of the United State National Museum, pp. 47-56.

Arnett, R.H., Jr. 1968. Oedemeridae (Latreille, 1810). The false blister beetles. The Beetles of the United States. The American Entomological Institute. Ann Arbor, MI. 1112 pp.

Arnett, Jr. R.H., M.C Thomas and P.E Skelley; J.H. Frank (editors). 2002. American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL. xiv + 861 pp.

Balduf, W.V. 1935. The bionomics of entomophagous Coleoptera. John S. Swift, NY. 220 pp. 

Barth, F. 1985. Insects and flowers: the biology of a partnership. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. x + 408 pp.

Beach, J.H. 1982. Beetle pollination of Cyclanthus bipartitus (Cyclanthaceae). American Journal of Botany 69: 1074–1081.

Beal, R.S. 1995. Taxonomic notes and distributional data on Nearctic species of Cryptorhopalum (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) with description of a new southwestern U.S. species. Entomological News 106(4): 169-177.

Benedict JH, Wolfenbarger DA, Bryant VM Jr., George DM. 1991. Pollen ingested by boll weevils (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 126– 131.

Bernhardt, P. 2000. Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms. Plant Systematics and Evolution 222(1): 293-320.

Betz, R.F., R.D. Struven, J.E. Wall, and F.B. Heitler. 1994. Insect pollinators of 12 milkweed (Asclepias) species. Pp. 45-60 In: T. B. Bragg and J. Stubbendieck (eds.) Proc. of the Thirteenth North American Prairie Conference. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Blake, D.H. 1933. Revision of the beetles of the genus Disonycha occurring in America north of Mexico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 82(28): 1-66, pls.1-8.

Blake, D.H. 1951. New species of chrysomelid beetles of the genera Trirhabda and Disonycha (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 41(10): 324-328.

Blake, D.H. 1955. Revision of the vittate species of the chrysomelid beetle genus Disonycha from the Americas south of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 104(3338): 1-86.

Bohart, G.K. and W.P. Nye. 1960. Insect pollinators of carrots in Utah. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 419.

Bond, W.B., and T.K. Philips. 1999. Diversity, phenology and flower hosts of anthophilous longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in a southeastern Ohio forest. Entomological News 110: 267–278.

Bottimer, L.J. 1969. Bruchidae associated with Mimosa with description of a new species. The Canadian Entomologist 101: 1186–1198.

Bottimer, L.J. 1973. Two new American bruchids in the sordidus group of Stator (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with notes on other species. The Canadian Entomologist 105: 545–551.

Beach, J.H. 1982. Beetle pollination of Cyclanthus bipartitus (Cyclanthaceae). American Journal of Botany 69: 1074-1081.

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