Texas Stink Bugs - Family Pentatomidae

BugGuide image guide to 100+ stink bug spp. in Texas

I was greatly assisted by V. Bugh, D. Rider and D. Thomas, among others.
I also benefited from access to the TAMUIC and the UTIC collections,
as well as BugGuide images, but any mistakes below are my own.

Abundance notes refer to the species' distribution within Texas and
were compiled from BugGuide and the collection resources mentioned above.

Return to Texas Entomology - Compiled by Mike Quinn

Subfamily Asopinae - Predatory Stink Bugs

Andrallus spinidens - female=Andrallus sp. in central Florida? - Andrallus spinidens - Andrallus spinidens (Fabricius) - adventive sp. established in FL. Note similarity to  Euschistus ictericus. Three historical TX records from in and around College Station.
Apateticus lineolatus (Herrich-Schäffer) - Apateticus lineolatus=   - Apateticus lineolatus - Apateticus lineolatus (Herrich-Schäffer) - large arboreal sp. similar to Brochymena, but edge of pronotum is smooth - mostly sw US to c. TX
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) - Alcaeorrhynchus grandis=Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) - Alcaeorrhynchus grandis=Hemipteran nymph - Alcaeorrhynchus grandis - Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) - large arboreal sp. w/ double-pointed humeral spines - se US to NM.
Apoecilus cynicus (Say) - Apoecilus cynicus=Apoecilus cynicus (Say) - Apoecilus cynicus=nymph - Apoecilus cynicus=Apoecilus cynicus (Say) - Apoecilus cynicus - Apoecilus cynicus (Say) - feeds on caterpillars along woodland edges - e NA to CA
Florida predatory stinkbug - Euthyrhynchus floridanus=Florida Predatory Stink Bug - Euthyrhynchus floridanus - Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) - preys on wide var. of adult and imm. insects - se US to e. & n. TX
Oplomus mundus Stål - Oplomus mundus - male=Oplomus mundus Stål - Oplomus mundus - male=Orange Stinkbug with Two Black Spots - Oplomus mundus=Oplomus mundus - Oplomus mundus Stål - s. TX to Panama
Predatory Pentatomid? - Oplomus dichrous=Pentatomid - Oplomus dichrous=Predatory Stinkbug - Oplomus dichrous - male=Predatory Stinkbug - Oplomus dichrous - male - Oplomus dichrous (Herrich-Schaeffer) - one record from Sabal Palm Sanctuary, Cameron Co., plus AZ to C. Amer.
Oplomus dichrous (Herrich-Schaeffer 1838)
Tylospilus acutissimus (Stål) - Tylospilus acutissimus=Tylospilus acutissimus (Stål) - Tylospilus acutissimus=Tylospilus acutissimus (Stål) - Tylospilus acutissimus - Tylospilus acutissimus (Stål) - common, KS to Columbia
Stink bug - Perillus bioculatus=Stink Bug - Perillus bioculatus=Two-spotted stink bug - Perillus bioculatus - Two-spotted Stink Bug - Perillus bioculatus (Fabricius) - red color is due to pigment obtained from its prey, mostly chrysomelids - widely dist. across US
Pred. Stinkbugs - Perillus confluens - male - female Stink Bug - Perillus exaptus Perillus splendidus (Uhler) - Perillus splendidus Pentatomidae, dorsal - Perillus strigipes=Podisus strigipes (Herrich-Schäffer) - Perillus strigipes - other spp. widely dist. across NA, but less common in TX than P. bioculatus
Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris=Podisus maculiventris (Say) - Podisus maculiventris - Spined Soldier Bug - Podisus maculiventris (Say) - preys on wide var. of adult & imm. insects - across N. Amer. Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - Stiretrus anchorago=Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - Stiretrus anchorago=Anchor Stink Bug - Stiretrus anchorago=Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - Stiretrus anchorago=Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - Stiretrus anchorago==Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - Stiretrus anchorago - Anchor Stinkbug - Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) - mostly preys on caterpillars - e US to NM
Iridescent Black Pentatomid in California - Zicrona americana=Iridescent Black Pentatomid nymph - Zicrona americana - Zicrona americana Thomas - adults similar to dark form of Anchor Sink Bug above, nymps similar to E. floridanus - w. US to c. TX & KS
Zicrona caerulea - Blue Stink Bug - Zicrona caerulea (Linnaeus) - one (1959) record from Junction, TX

Subfamily Discocephalinae

Lineostethus clypeatus (Stal) - Lineostethus clypealis - Lineostethus clypeatus (Stal) - southmost TX (Cameron & Hidalgo Counties) to Mex

Subfamily Edessinae

Edessa? - Edessa bifida - Edessa bifida (Say) - large, smooth, rounded sp. - se US to c. & s. TX

Subfamily Pentatominae

Neottiglossa cavifrons Stal - Neottiglossa cavifrons - Neottiglossa cavifrons Stål - very small pentatomid - e US to e. TX. Second sp., N. sulcifrons Stål in e. & c. TX
Bug Adult - Aelia americana=Bug Nymph - Aelia americana - Aelia americana Dallas - asso. w/ grasses - uncommon, w. NA to n. TX
- African Cluster Bug - Agonoscelis puberula Stål - small, adventive sp. forms clusters on its host horehound. - sw US to AR Halyomorpha halys=brown marmorated stinkbug - Halyomorpha halys - female=Stink bug - Halyomorpha halys=Spiky Nymph - Halyomorpha halys - Brown Marmorated Stink Bug - Halyomorpha halys (Stål) - invasive pest sp., may be established in the Houston area - mostly e US, and w coast
Kermana imbuta (Walker) - Kermana imbuta=Kermana imbuta (Walker) - Kermana imbuta=Kermana imbuta (Walker) - Kermana imbuta - Kermana imbuta (Walker) - mostly s. TX to C. Amer.
Mormidea lugens (Fabricius) - Mormidea lugens=Mormidea lugens 5th instar - Mormidea lugens - Mormidea lugens (Fabricius) - small destinctive sp. often found on grasses - e NA to c. & s. TX
Proxys punctulatus (Palisot) - Proxys punctulatus=830W14 - Proxys punctulatus=bug nymph - Proxys punctulatus - Black Stink Bug - Proxys punctulatus (Palisot) - e US to c. TX, CA
Coenus delius (Say) - Coenus delius=Coenus delius (Say) - Coenus delius - Coenus delius (Say) - pale, plump pentatomid with long rounded scutellum - e NA to BC, uncommon in TX
Holcostethus limbolarius (Stål) - Holcostethus limbolarius=Holcostethus limbolarius=Margined Stink Bug - Holcostethus limbolarius - Holcostethus limbolarius (Stål) - pronotum and elytra with thin cream-colored margin - widely dist. across NA
Hymenarcys nervosa=Hymenarcys nervosa nymph - Hymenarcys nervosa - Hymenarcys nervosa (Say) - prominent veins in wing membrane - e US to c. TX
Mcphersonarcys aequalis (Say) - Mcphersonarcys aequalis=Mcphersonarcys aequalis (Say) - Mcphersonarcys aequalis=Mcphersonarcys aequalis (Say) - Mcphersonarcys aequalis - Mcphersonarcys aequalis (Say) - elongated head and prothorax - e NA to AZ, but uncommon across TX
Menecles insertus (Say) - Menecles insertus=Menecles insertus ? - Menecles insertus=Brown pentatomoid nymph - Menecles insertus - Menecles insertus (Say) - broadly flattened body - e US to CA
Pentatomid - Moromorpha tetra=  - Moromorpha tetra=Immature Bug 5 - Moromorpha tetra - Moromorpha tetra (Walker) - AZ to w. TX / Mex.
Mormidea cubrosa Dallas - Mormidea cubrosa - Mormidea cubrosa Dallas - s. TX to Columbia, common in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties
Prionosoma podopioides Uhler - Prionosoma podopioides - Prionosoma podopioides Uhler - hairy pronotum and head - hosts on desert monocots - w. NA to s. TX
Trichopepla semivittata (Say) - Trichopepla semivittata=Trichopepla semivittata (Say) - Trichopepla semivittata=Trichopepla semivittata (Say) - Trichopepla semivittata=stinkbug with nymphs - Trichopepla semivittata - Trichopepla semivittata (Say) - small, roundish, boldly patterned, see also Dendrocoris - feeds on var. Apiaceae - common, e US to Mex.
Cosmopepla lintneriana? - Cosmopepla lintneriana=What is this, please? - Cosmopepla lintneriana - Two-spotted Stink Bug - Cosmopepla lintneriana (Kirkaldy) - small, often on plants in the mint family (Lamiaceae) - e NA to BC, mostly locally common on the Edwards Plateau
Cosmopepla decorata (Hahn) - Cosmopepla decorata - Cosmopepla decorata (Hahn) - AZ to w. TX, with other scattered c. & s. TX records Euschistus obscurus (Palisot) - Euschistus obscurus=Euschistus obscurus (Palisot)  - Euschistus obscurus=Euschistus obscurus? - Euschistus obscurus=Euschistus obscurus (Palisot) - Euschistus obscurus - Euschistus obscurus (Palisot) - small w/ pale bar stretching betw. the humeral angles of the pronotum - se US to Mex.
Euschistus servus (Say) - Euschistus servus=Euschistus servus (Say) - Euschistus servus - Brown Stink Bug - Euschistus servus (Say) - large, variable in color - important crop pest, widely dist.
Euschistus tristigmus (Say) - Euschistus tristigmus=Euschistus tristigmus (Say) - Euschistus tristigmus - Dusky Stink Bug - Euschistus tristigmus (Say) - pronounced shoulder angles, tip of the scutellum is often white - e. NA
Euschistus sp - Euschistus biformis=Euschistus - Euschistus biformis - Euschistus biformis Stål - mountains of w. TX & AZ
Euschistus crassus Dallas - Euschistus crassus=Euschistus crassus Dallas - Euschistus crassus - Euschistus crassus Dallas - mostly along the sandy coastal plains in TX - se US to s. TX
Euschistus ictericus (Linnaeus) - Euschistus ictericus=Euschistus ictericus (Linnaeus) - Euschistus ictericus - Euschistus ictericus (Linnaeus) -  large, sharp spines on the shoulders - uncommon, e NA to c. & s. TX
Euschistus latimarginatus Zimmer - Euschistus latimarginatus - male=Euschistus latimarginatus Zimmer - Euschistus latimarginatus - male - Euschistus latimarginatus Zimmer - a sandhill specialist - uncommon from w. TX to NE & CO
Euschistus quadrator Rolston - Euschistus quadrator=Euschistus quadrator Rolston - Euschistus quadrator - Euschistus quadrator Rolston - sharp humeral spines - mostly along the sandy coastal plains in TX - se US to C. Amer.
Pentatomid - Euschistus variolarius - male=Pentatomid - Euschistus variolarius - male - Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) - male has prominent black spot below - widely dist., but almost entirely n. of Texas
Euschistus Euschistus  Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) - Oebalus pugnax=Rice Stink Bug nymph - Oebalus pugnax=Early instar nymph - Oebalus pugnax - Rice Stink Bug - Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) - narrow with forward-pointing spines on shoulders - feeds on rice, wheat, sorghum and many grasses - see also Mecidea - e US to AZ
Stink Bug again - Oebalus mexicanus - Oebalus mexicanus (Sailer) - 1 s. TX record (1980) from Falcon Dam, Starr Co., other records from AZ & Mex.
Unknown Stink Bug - Arvelius albopunctatus=Arvelius albopunctatus (DeGeer) - Arvelius albopunctatus=What am I? - Arvelius albopunctatus=Tomato Stink Bug Nymphs - Arvelius albopunctatus=Bugs?? - Arvelius albopunctatus=Orange/Black - Leaf-footed Insect?  Assassin Bug? - Arvelius albopunctatus=Stink bug nymphs??? - Arvelius albopunctatus - Arvelius albopunctatus (DeGeer) - AZ, TX, FL, Neotropics
Loxa=Loxa - 2 Loxa spp. difficult to separate - mostly s. TX to S. Amer., also se US & AZ
Brochymena arborea (Say) - Brochymena arborea=Brochymena arborea (Say) - Brochymena arborea - Brochymena arborea (Say) - note distinctive quadrate humeral angles of the pronotum - e. NA to c. TX
Brochymena cariosa Stål - Brochymena cariosa=Brochymena cariosa Stål - Brochymena cariosa - Brochymena cariosa Stål - e US to c TX, with a few sw TX records
Brochymena carolinensis (Westwood) - Brochymena carolinensis=Brochymena carolinensis (Westwood) - Brochymena carolinensis - Brochymena carolinensis (Westwood) - e US to e. TX, but no TX records in the TAMUIC since 1974
Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - Brochymena quadripustulata=Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - Brochymena quadripustulata - Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - head noctiched in front center - e NA to Rockies, absent in s. TX
Brochymena dilata Ruckes - Brochymena dilata=Brochymena dilata Ruckes - Brochymena dilata - Brochymena dilata Ruckes - AZ, mostly to w. & s. TX
Brochymena hoppingi Van Duzee - Brochymena hoppingi Brochymena hoppingi Van Duzee - Brochymena hoppingi - Brochymena hoppingi Van Duzee - sw US to w. TX, one spmn in the UTIC from the Davis Mtns., NSR?
Brochymena lineata Ruckes - Brochymena lineata=Brochymena lineata Ruckes - Brochymena lineata - Brochymena lineata Ruckes - uncommon, AZ to c. TX
Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - Brochymena quadripustulata=Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - Brochymena quadripustulata - Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius) - head noctiched in front center - e NA to Rockies, absent in s. TX
Brochymena sulcata Van Duzee - Brochymena sulcata=Brochymena sulcata Van Duzee - Brochymena sulcata - Brochymena sulcata Van Duzee - sw US to w. TX
Pentatomidae - Brochymena parva - Brochymena parva Ruckes - sw US to w. & s. TX
Brochymena chelonoides Ruckes - Brochymena chelonoides - Brochymena chelonoides Ruckes - c. TX to Mex.
Pentatomidae - Mecidea=Mecidea major Sailer - Mecidea major=Unid. striped true bug nymph - Mecidea - two spp. in Texas - grass hosts include Sideoats Grama - see also Rice Stink Bug - genus ranges from upper midwest to sw US
Chinavia hilaris (Say) - Chinavia hilaris=Acrosternum (Chinavia) hilare (Say) - Chinavia hilaris=Chinavia hilaris (Say) - Chinavia hilaris=Chinavia hilaris (Say) - Chinavia hilaris - Green Stink Bug - Acrosternum (Chinavia) hilare (Say) - this is the most common sp. in TX - widely dist. across N. Amer.
Chinavia marginata (Palisot) - Chinavia marginata=Chinavia marginata (Palisot) - Chinavia marginata=Chinavia marginata (Palisot) - Chinavia marginata=Chinavia marginata (Palisot)  - Chinavia marginata=Chinavia marginata (Palisot) - Chinavia marginata=Chinavia marginata (Palisot) - Chinavia marginata - Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginata (Palisot) - antennae of adults are blue-green - mostly s. TX to S. Amer.
Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) - Nezara viridula=Southern Stink Bug Nymph - Nezara viridula=Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) - Nezara viridula=Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) - Nezara viridula=Insect found in classroom - Nezara viridula - Southern Green Stink Bug - Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) - scutellum has small black dot in each forward corner - important crop pest, se US, CA Chlorochroa ligata (Say) - Chlorochroa ligata=Chlorochroa ligata (Say) - Chlorochroa ligata=Chlorochroa ligata (Say) - Chlorochroa ligata=Chlorochroa ligata (Say) - Chlorochroa ligata=Conchuela Stink Bug Ova - Chlorochroa ligata - Conchuela Stink Bug - Chlorochroa ligata (Say) - prefers fleshy fruits of various plants - w. NA to c. TX
Pentatomid - Chlorochroa sayi Pent - Chlorochroa opuntiae Pentatomid with big scutellum - Chlorochroa osborni Green Stink Bug - Chlorocoris hebetatus - some six other spp. in Texas - genus mostly occurs across w. NA
Chlorochroa saucia Chlorochroa senilis - these two spp. occur on coastal salt marsh veg. along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts, neither are common in TX
adult - Pellaea stictica=last instar nymph - Pellaea stictica - Pellaea stictica (Dallas) - may feed on Ligustrum - s. TX to S. Amer.
Pharypia nitidiventris predatory stink bug? - Ramosiana insignis - Two first US records, Hays Co. and Kenedy Co. respectively.
Banasa euchlora Stål - Banasa euchlora=Pentatomidae nymph - Banasa euchlora - Jade Stink Bug - Banasa euchlora Stål - hosts on Juniper - widely dist. across the US
8W45 Banasa - Banasa calva Banasa dimiata - Banasa dimidiata Stinker - Banasa lenticularis Pentatomid - Banasa packardii Banasa rolstoni - other spp. require dissection to separate. Cyptocephala elegans (Malloch) - Cyptocephala elegans=Cyptocephala elegans (Malloch) - Cyptocephala elegans=Cyptocephala elegans (Malloch) - Cyptocephala elegans - Cyptocephala elegans (Malloch) - hosts on Chenopodiaceae - s. TX, s. FL
1011C25 - Cyptocephala antiguensis - Cyptocephala antiguensis (Westwood) - sw US to s. TX
Tepa brevis (Van Duzee) - Tepa brevis=Tepa brevis (Van Duzee) - Tepa brevis - Tepa brevis (Van Duzee) - w. NA to s. TX
920W06 - Tepa vanduzeei Tepa jugosa (Van Duzee) - Tepa jugosa Tepa=Tepa - small, flat-colored, difficult to separate spp. that host on saltbush (Atriplex) - genus occurs in w. NA
Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator=Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - Thyanta custator - Red-shouldered Sink Bug - Thyanta custator (Fabricius) - very common, widely dist. across N. Amer.
Thyanta calceata (Say) - Thyanta calceata=Thyanta calceata (Say) - Thyanta calceata=Stink Bug - Thyanta calceata=Thyanta calceata (Say) - Thyanta calceata - Thyanta calceata (Say) - note narrow black line on the leading edge of the pronotum - uncommon, e. US to e. TX
Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - Thyanta maculata=Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - Thyanta maculata=Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - Thyanta maculata=Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - Thyanta maculata=Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - Thyanta maculata=nymph - Thyanta maculata - Thyanta maculata (Fabricius) - mostly s. TX to Panama
Stinkbug - Thyanta perditor=Thyanta perditor? - Thyanta perditor=bug - Thyanta perditor - Thyanta perditor (Fabricius) - mostly so. FL but 2 southmost TX records
Piezodorus guildinii=Nymphs - Piezodorus guildinii - Red-banded Stink Bug - Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) - major pest of soybeans in the southeast, see also Banasa spp. - se US to NM Odmalea - male=Odmalea - male Odmalea schaefferi (Barber) - Odmalea schaefferi=Odmalea schaefferi (Barber) - Odmalea schaefferi=Odmalea schaefferi (Barber) - Odmalea schaefferi - Odmalea spp. - two small spp. w/ pronounced pronotal angles - rare in s. TX
Dendrocoris humeralis (Uhler) - Dendrocoris humeralis=Dendrocoris humeralis (Uhler) - Dendrocoris humeralis=Dendrocoris humeralis (Uhler) - Dendrocoris humeralis=Dendrocoris humeralis (Uhler) - Dendrocoris humeralis - Dendrocoris humeralis (Uhler) - small, rounded, reddish sp. mostly found on oak - e. US to CA
Pentatomidae - Dendrocoris contaminatus - Dendrocoris contaminatus Uhler - hosts on creosote bush in w. TX to AZ
flat brown bug - Sciocoris longifrons=flat brown bug - Sciocoris longifrons=Sciocoris longifrons Barber - Sciocoris longifrons - Sciocoris longifrons Barber - subterranean pentatomid - c. and s. Texas Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) - Murgantia histrionica=Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) - Murgantia histrionica=Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) - Murgantia histrionica=Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) - Murgantia histrionica=Halloween Bug - Murgantia histrionica=Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica, hatching from eggs - Murgantia histrionica - Harlequin Bug - Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) - primarily on Brassicaceae - e. US to CA
Bagrada Bug? - Bagrada hilaris=Bagrada hilaris infestation (mostly immatures) - Bagrada hilaris - Painted Stink Bug - Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) - adventive, much smaller that the Harlequin Bug - hosts on members of the mustard, nightshade, mallow, legume, sunflower and grain families - sw US to n., c. & s. TX, native to Africa.

Subfamily Podopinae - Turtle Bugs (formerly a full family separate from Pentatomidae)

W8-01 - Amaurochrous cinctipes - female=W8-01 - Amaurochrous cinctipes - female - Amaurochrous cinctipes (Say) - generally on veg in wet areas - rare, e. NA to sw. TX, 4 TX records
Oncozygia clavicornis=Oncozygia clavicornis=Oncozygia clavicornis - Oncozygia clavicornis Stål - life history unknown - rare, coastal se US to s TX, 4 TX records

Family Acanthosomatidae - Shield Bugs

Red-Cross Shield Bug - Elasmostethus cruciatus=Red-Cross Shield Bug Nymph - Elasmostethus cruciatus - Red-Cross Shield Bug - Elasmostethus cruciatus (Say) - hosts on alder - Alnus (Betulaceae) - mountain west, n. US & Can.

See Also:

Annotated Photos of Central Texas Pentatomidae (Excellent reference) - Austin Bug Collection

Detailed Morphology of Pentatomidae - Biological Survey of Canada

North American Pentatomid Genera Photos - BugGuide

Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance (PDF) - Virginia Tech

Biologia Centrali-Americana: Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera & Homoptera

Checklist of the Pentatomidae of Oklahoma (60 spp.) - OK State University

Genus Index - David Rider, North Dakota State University

Species Index - David Rider, North Dakota State University

Pentatomoidea Bibliography - 2007 forward - David Rider, North Dakota State University


Selected References:

Ahmad, I. and J.E. McPherson. 1998. Additional information on male and female genitalia of Parabrochymena Larivère and Brochymena Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91: 800–807.

Arnold, D.C. and W.A. Drew. 1988. The Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, T-166. 42 pp.

Banks, N. 1910. Catalogue of the Nearctic Hemiptera-Heteroptera. American Entomological Society, Philadelphia, viii + 103 pp.

Barber, G.W. 1926. A short list of Scutelleroidea collected in New Mexico in 1916. Entomological News 37: 43–44.

Barber, H.G. 1906. Hemiptera from southwestern Texas. Science Bulletin of the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1(9): 255-289.

Barber, H.G. 1910. Some Mexican Hemiptera-Heteroptera new to the fauna of the United States. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 18: 34–39.

Barber, H.G. and R.I. Sailer. 1953. A revision of the turtle bugs of North America (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 43: 150-162.

Barton, H.E. and L.A. Lee.1981. The Pentatomidae of Arkansas. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings 35: 20–25.

Blatchley, W.S. 1926. Heteroptera, or true bugs of eastern North America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis. 1116 pp. (Text)

Bundy C.S. 2012. An annotated checklist of the stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of New Mexico. Great Lakes Entomologist 45(3-4): 196-209.

Bundy, C.S. and J.E. McPherson. 2011. Life history and laboratory rearing of Mecidea minor (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(4): 605-612.

Bundy, C.S., T.R. Grasswitz and C. Sutherland. 2012. First report of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)(Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from New Mexico, with notes on its biology. Southwestern Entomologist 37: 411-414.

Buxton, G.M., D.B. Thomas and R.C. Froeschner. 1983. Revision of the species of the sayi-group of Chlorochroa Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Occasional Papers in Entomology 29: 1-25.

Cuda, J.P. and J.E. McPherson. 1976. Life history and laboratory rearing of Brochymena quadripustulata with descriptions of immature stages and additional notes on Brochymena arborea (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 69(5): 977-983.

Dailey, P.J., R.C. Graves, and J.L. Herring. 1978. Survey of Hemiptera collected on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, at one site in Ohio. Entomological News 89(7&8): 157-162.

DeCoursey, R.M. and C.O. Esselbaugh. 1962. Descriptions of the nymphal stages of some North American Pentatomidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 323-342.

Esquivel, J.F., R.M. Anderson and R.E. Droleskey. 2009. A visual guide for identification of Euschistus spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in central Texas. Southwestern Entomologist 34(4): 485-488.

Esselbaugh, C.O. 1945. Biology of the Pentatomidae (Hemiptera). PhD Dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 247 pp.

Esselbaugh, C.O. 1946. A study of the eggs of the Pentatomidae (Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39(4): 667-691.

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29 June 2017 © Mike Quinn / entomike@gmail.com / Texas Entomology